Nys Math Test 2017 Answer Key latest 2023

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Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who developed a theory of cognitive development that attempted to go beyond the simple measure of mental capacity that is IQ and to come to a deeper understanding of the mental capacity of a person. child. It was widely believed in the 1930s that children were simply worse thinkers than adults. However, through a series of intelligent tests, Piaget (1936) proved that children think completely differently from adults and, moreover, their ability to reason is composed in such a way that a form of logic leads to versions improved as the child develops. Piaget’s theory had four stages of cognitive development.

Steps

Sensorimotor – The sensory-motor stage lasts from birth until around two years of age. It is a stage of discovery for the child. The child begins to examine the relationships between actions and the consequences of those actions. For example, a child begins to learn that if he pushes a spoon over the edge of a table, it will fall. A child also begins to develop self-concept. The child learns that he is separated from the outside world and that the hand is part of him but not the spoon. In addition, the child learns that he is able to act and manipulate the environment around him. They become more object oriented and can play with a rattle or a set of keys, for example, for his pleasure. During this stage, the child learns object permanence, which is the understanding that when an object is out of sight, it does not cease to exist. Piaget tested it by placing objects under a cloth in front of the child. An 8 month old will stop and lose interest almost immediately but a 1 year old will actively search for the object. At this point, the child understands that the object continues to exist and has a mental image of the object. This is the first sign that the child has developed short-term memory.

Pre-operational – This stage lasts from 2 years to 7 years and is the stage during which children develop language. At this stage, children are able to think symbolically. For example, during play you might see a child pretending that a stick is a sword or a gun. A child’s speech also demonstrates the ability to think symbolically. However, while a child’s mind can think symbolically, it struggles to think logically and cannot manipulate the information in the mind. Piaget (1936) proved this through conservation experiments. There were two kinds: conservation of mass and number.

Conservation of mass – This experiment may involve a child being given two glasses with an equal amount of liquid inside. The experimenter will then pour one of the glasses into a longer glass in front of the child with no liquid added. The child will then be asked which contains the most liquid and at this point the child will respond that the larger container contains more although nothing has been added. Moreover, the same experiment can be carried out with two balls of clay of the same size. The experimenter will roll one into a cylinder and the child will then identify the cylinder as the largest.

Conservation of number – This experiment involves showing a child two rows of coins containing the same amount. The child will identify them as identical. However, after the experimenter smears one of the lines, the child will identify this as the one with more.

Operational Concrete – This stage lasts from the age of 7 to 12 years. At this point, a child has mastered conservation and has become much less self-centered. The child now uses some logic and abstract thinking, but only in realistic terms that apply to his own experience. They still struggle to understand higher abstract thought.

Formal operations – This is the last stage and begins around the age of 12. During this stage, the child improves his ability to think symbolically. They begin to consider abstract ideas such as morality or the future. The huge leap in curriculum at this point demonstrates this increase in mental capacity.

Plan

Piaget (1952) developed the idea of ​​schemas according to the cognitive development of children. Piaget (1952) defined schemas as “a coherent, repeatable sequence of actions possessing tightly interconnected component actions governed by core meaning”. That is, it is a way of organizing knowledge into mental blueprints based on the child’s daily experiences. For example, when a person goes to the cinema, he accesses the behaviors of buying a ticket, popcorn, finding a seat and enjoying the movie and follows this pattern each time he goes to the cinema. .

He identified three types of schemas: behavioral schemas relating to physical objects and experiences, symbolic schemas, used to represent abstract aspects of experience, and operational schemas, used for mental activities using thoughts such as mathematics. . Piaget believed that children’s schemas develop and become more advanced as the child ages. In addition, a child will assimilate new information from the environment and add this knowledge to their existing patterns. However, if the child encounters something with the same traits as an existing schema, he must adapt by creating a new schema. For example, a child develops a diagram for the car but does not know the difference between a car and a truck so he must create a new diagram to differentiate between the two. When a child’s existing schemas are sufficient to describe their current experiences, they are said to be in balance.

Criticisms

Some critiques of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development are:

  • Piaget may have underestimated the role of individual differences in children’s cognitive ability

  • No controls were set during the experiment, so there is nothing to measure

  • The age limits of stage theories may not be consistent with the cognitive ability of all children. Also, age groups can change due to the Flynn effect

The references

OnlinePiaget, J. (1936). Origins of intelligence in children. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Piaget, J., & Cook, MT (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York, NY: International University Press.

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